全球化视域下当代英语词汇变迁与发展趋势探究

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1、中图分类号: 单位代码:10231 学 号:42110368 全球化视域下当代英语词汇全球化视域下当代英语词汇 变迁与发展变迁与发展趋势探究趋势探究 学科专业:外国语言学及应用语言学 研究方向:文化语言学 作者姓名:崔淑娟 指导教师:林亚军 教授 哈尔滨师范大学 二一四年六月 中图分类号: 单位代码:10231 学 号:42110368 硕士学位论文硕士学位论文 全球化视域下当代英语词汇变迁与发展全球化视域下当代英语词汇变迁与发展趋势趋势 探究探究 硕 士 研 究 生 :崔淑娟 导师 林亚军 学科专业 :外国语言学及 应用语言学 答辩日期 :2014 年 6 月 授 予 学 位 单 位 :哈尔

2、滨师范大学 A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Master Changes and Development of Contemporary English Vocabulary against the Background of Globalization Candidate : Cui Shujuan Supervisor : Lin Yajun Speciality : Foreign Linguistics and Applied Linguistics Date of Defence : June, 2014 Degree-Conferring-

3、Institution : Harbin Normal University Contents -I- Contents 摘摘 要要 . - 2 -I Abstract . II Chapter 1 Introduction . - 1 - 1.1 Background of the Research . - 1 - 1.2 Objectives and Significance of the Study . - 3 - 1.3 Organization of the Thesis . - 3 - Chapter 2 Literature Review . - 5 - 2.1 Studies

4、of Changes in Contemporary English Vocabulary Abroad. - 5 - 2.2 Studies of Changes in Contemporary English Vocabulary at Home . - 8 - 2.3 Summary . - 9 - Chapter 3 Ways of Changing in Contemporary English Vocabulary . - 11 - 3.1 Lexical Changes . - 11 - 3.2 Sources of New Words . - 15 - 3.3 Formatio

5、n of New Words . - 24 - 3.4 Summary . - 42 - Chapter 4 Basic Principles of Lexical Changes . - 43 - 4.1 Survival of the Fittest Principle . - 43 - 4.1.1 New Things . - 44 - 4.1.2 New Events . - 46 - 4.1.3 New Ideas . - 47 - 4.2 Gradualistic Principle . - 48 - 4.2.1 Social and Political History . - 4

6、9 - 4.2.2 Chronological Change in Lexicon . - 53 - 4.3 Limited Novelty Principle . - 55 - 4.3.1 Old Meanings in New Forms. - 55 - 4.3.2 New Meanings in Old Forms . - 56 - 4.3.3 New Meanings in New Forms . - 57 - 4.4 Economy Principle . - 57 - 4.4.1 Conversion or Functional Shift. - 58 - 4.4.2 Semant

7、ic Shift . - 61 - 4.5 Summary . - 65 - Chapter 5 Basic Causes of Contemporary Lexical Changes . - 66 - 哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文 -II- 5.1 Products of Economy . - 66 - 5.2 Mirrors of Politics . - 66 - 5.3 Vehicles of Society and Culture . - 67 - 5.3.1 Social factors . - 67 - 5.3.2 Culture . - 68 - 5.4 Marks of d

8、evelopment in Science and Technology . - 70 - 5.5 Globalization . - 71 - 5.5.1 The Spread of English across the Globe . - 73 - 5.5.2 An Overview of the Use of English throughout the World . - 74 - 5.5.3 Lexical Identity of English in Globalization . - 74 - 5.6 Summary . - 75 - Chapter 6 Developing T

9、endency of Contemporary Vocabulary against the Background of Globalization . - 77 - 6.1 Exploded Expansion of Vocabulary in Politics, Economy, Technology and Life . - 80 - 6.2 Old words Obtaining New Meanings . - 80 - 6.3 Activation in Parts of Speech . - 81 - 6.4 Constantly Absorbing Exotic Vocabul

10、ary . - 82 - 6.4.1 Words Borrowed from Latin and Greek . - 82 - 6.4.2 Words Borrowed from French . - 83 - 6.4.3 Words Borrowed from Other Indo-European Languages . - 84 - 6.4.4 Words Borrowed from Chinese and Japanese . - 85 - 6.5 Rich Cultural Colors in Vocabulary . - 85 - 6.6 More Synonyms . - 88

11、- 6.7 The Phenomenon of Polysemy are More than any Time before . - 89 - 6.8 Summary . - 90 - Chapter 7 Conclusion . - 92 - 7.1 Review of the Study . - 92 - 7.2 Implications of the Study . - 93 - 7.3 Limitations and Suggestions of the Study . - 93 - Bibliography . - 95 - 攻读学位期间完成的学术论文攻读学位期间完成的学术论文 .

12、- 99 - 哈尔滨师范大学学位论文独创性声明哈尔滨师范大学学位论文独创性声明 . - 100 - 哈尔滨师范大学学位论文授权使用声明哈尔滨师范大学学位论文授权使用声明 . - 100 - Acknowledgements . - 101 - 摘 要 -I- 摘摘 要要 自 20 世纪 90 年代初起,随着互联网和通信技术突飞猛进的发展,全球各个 民族国家之间的政治、经济、文化的普遍联系和交往日益密切。当前,全球化已 经成为最时髦的词汇,在全世界主流媒体上不断出现,成为大多数人耳熟能详的 词汇。全球化的动态力量及特性结束了各个国家、地区及种族上的分歧。突然之 中,整个世界成为了“地球村” 。

13、在这个“地球村”中,每一位“村民”要想顺利融入“村内”的经济、文化 和生活就不可避免地使用语言,而词汇则是语言的载体。没有词汇,任何人都会 寸步难行。词汇是社会和文化的镜子,是社会文化方面最活跃的因素并对其不断 地从根本上进行着改变。通过分析及阐述自 20 世纪以来词汇领域的具体变化,本 文试图以全球化为背景去研究词汇变化的基本原则,当代词汇变化的基本原因以 及当代词汇更新的发展趋势。 关于词汇,国内外学者已经进行了许多的研究,但研究局限于探讨词汇的起 源、构成方式等基础性研究,对词汇的发展变化原因和趋势谈之甚少,更不用提 在全球化的背景下了。本篇论文的突出之处就是在全球化的视域下探讨当代英语

14、 词汇的变迁与发展趋势。整篇文章可以分为七个章节。第一章和第二章是对研究 背景、研究目的、意义及文章结构的概述,此外作者还介绍了本课题的国内外研 究现状。第三章详细阐述了当代英语词汇变化的方式,即词法的变化、新词的来 源及新词的构成。第四章主要探讨了当代英语词汇变化所遵循的四项基本原则。 论文的核心章节就是第五章和第六章。全球化是一个概念化的过程,它削弱 了国家间的分歧,融合了国家间的经济、文化、技术及管理关系并产生了国家间 彼此相互依赖的复杂关系。第五章主要研究了当代英语词汇变化的基本原因,即 在当代英语词汇为什么会不断地发生变化。第六章讨论了全球化背景下英语词汇 未来的发展趋势。论文的最后

15、一章是总结部分,作者再次陈述了研究观点、回顾 了研究的过程及总结了研究的成果。 本文作者拟从全球化背景下的英语发展为研究视角, 探究了现代英语词汇的发 展动因,以对当代英语词汇的实际应用中提供理论上的支持,使得英语学习者尤 其是初学者可以以全球化为背景更好的理解当代英语变化的所遵循的基本原则、 基本原因和当代词汇更新的发展趋势。研究表明:英语发挥着它全球通用语的作 用,英语的全球化使得全球人民可以更有效地交流,更能深入、全面、细微地认 哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文 -II- 识自身,认识“地球村”和“村子”周边环境。更能有效、有力、有序地处理发 生在这个“村子”里的一些紧急情况,更能使“村民们”

16、从容面临挑战,团结协 作,增进友谊,增进了解,建设一个美丽、和谐的地球村。每天都有大量的英语 新词涌入英语词汇的事实也要求我们对于英语的变化始终保持着高度的敏感性, 这一点是必须的,也是卓有意义的。 关键词关键词:当代英语;全球化;词汇变化;发展趋势 Abstract -III- Abstract As early as 1990s, along with the fast and fierce development of internet and communication technologies, every nation around the world connects close

17、ly in politics, economy, and culture. Nowadays, globalization, which is familiar to most of us, has become the most fashionable word and appeared constantly in mainstream media The forces and characteristics of globalization dynamics have end of traditional boundaries among nations, regions and ethn

18、ic divides. Suddenly the whole world had become a global village. In this global village, it is inevitable to use language for every villager to mix into the economy, culture and life successfully, and of course vocabulary is the carrier of language. Without vocabulary, nobody can walk. Vocabulary i

19、s the most active element and mirror of the society and culture, changes most radically and constantly. By analyzing and expounding concrete changes since the 20th century in lexical field, this dissertation attempts to study basic principles of lexical changes, basic causes of contemporary lexical

20、changes and developing tendency of contemporary vocabulary. Concerning vocabulary, the scholars at home and abroad have done much research. But most of the it is confined to the fundamental research such as the origin of vocabulary, ways of formation etc., they mentioned little of the reasons of the

21、 development and changes of vocabulary and the tendency of it, let alone against the background of globalization. The prominent feature of this thesis is to survey the changes and development of contemporary English vocabulary against the background the background of globalization. The whole thesis

22、can be divided into seven chapters. Chapter one and chapter two is a general introduction to the background of the research, the objective and significance of the investigation, the organization of the thesis and some existing researches at home and abroad in this field. The third chapter illustrate

23、s the ways of changing in contemporary English vocabulary, which are lexical changes, sources of new words and formation of new words. Chapter Four mainly illustrates four basic principles behind lexical changes in contemporary English. The core chapters are Chapter Five and Chapter Six. Globalizati

24、on is a conceptualized process, because it weakens divergences and blends the relationship in economy, culture, technologies and management. Furthermore, it causes the complex relationship between the nations 哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文 -IV- depending on each other. Chapter Five mainly studies the basic causes of

25、 contemporary lexical changes. Chapter Six discusses the developing tendency of contemporary vocabulary and the author gives a complete summary to look forward to the future of English developments. In the last chapter of this dissertation, a conclusion is given and the author presents the review an

26、d implications of the study. The author of the thesis tends to study the developing motivation of the contemporary English vocabulary so as to provide theoretical support in practical use, therefore, enabling English learners; particularly beginners better understand the ways of changing in contempo

27、rary English vocabulary, basic principles behind lexical changes vocabulary and the developing tendency of contemporary vocabulary. Investigation shows that the use of English language as a common means of communication across culturesa lingua franca; the globalization of English enables the people

28、around the world to communicate more efficiently and know themselves more intensive, comprehensive and subtle. Recognize global village and surrounding circumstances around village and deal with something emergent well organized and forcefully deepens the mutual understanding of the villagers and as

29、 a result they could construct a beautiful and harmonious habit. As a matter of fact, a great number of new words have been pouring into English everyday and it is becoming more and more highly and remarkably necessary for us to keep a watchful eye on the varieties of language. It is necessary and s

30、ignificant as well. Key words: contemporary English; globalization; lexical changes; developing tendency Chapter 1 Introduction - 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background of the Research In the 1990s, the former UN secretary-general, Boutros Boutros-Gali declared the world entered the era of global

31、ization. Globalization is a new proposition and influences every aspect in every country. Globalization and technological advancement have strikingly changed our ways of learning and teaching English as a lingua franca in the 21st century (Block Burns Warschauer, 2000). Famous linguist Palmer has lo

32、ng suggested that language faithfully reflects a nations history and culture, varieties of games and entertainment, different prejudice and beliefs. In todays economic globalization, people from various cultures in all areas keep in contact more and more frequently. With the ever-increasing communic

33、ation, English is no doubt regarded as the most important media in the world and is sure to be an international language (R. Quirk, 1985:3), a global language and a common language (D. Crystal, 2001). It is estimated that almost 375 million people in the world are using English as their mother tongue, and another 375 million of the population uses it as second language, in addit

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